Education System in Pakistan
The core objective of every education system in any country of the world is to attract and to keep maximum children in the schools for the development of the nation. K. K. Aziz wrote in his book “The Murder of History” ‘Pakistan which was created at midnight on fifteenth of August, 1947’ The first electoral Assembly become able to set Constitution for the Islamic Republic of Pakistan which take place in 1973. In this constitution Article 25-A is about free and compulsory education that:
“The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such manner as may be determined by law” (Article 25-A, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan).
“State shall be responsible for eradication of illiteracy and provision of free and compulsory education up to the secondary level, within minimum possible time” (Article 37-B, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan).
Education is a basic human right and every child is allowed to it. Education is significant for the growth of individuals and society at large, education is compulsory for a victorious and industrious future. Prerequisite of comprehensive and unbiased quality education, positively impacts generations to move toward.
With an entire population of 201,995,540 and sixth most populous country in the global village, thirty sixth largest in term of area in the world covering 796,095sq km, the world community considered it as the home of ancient civilization such as Mehergarh and Indus valley, Unluckily, the Islamic republic of Pakistan education has not acknowledged the outstanding attention that it deserves. However, the previous Government in Pakistan had made an effort to build concrete foundations for education, putting in a place a number of necessary measures, including increased allocation of resources for education.
An exceptionally increase of 17.14% in the enrollment of adolescent at the higher secondary stage has been observed all over the state. In census survey of the year 2012-13, it is evidence that 1.17 million students were enrolled at higher secondary education stage in Pakistan.
If we see the statistics of the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018, the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) explain Pakistan’s weak functioning being ranked 129th of the 137 nations, on the Health and Primary Education related elements of competitiveness, when compared with other countries in the region like India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka Malaysia and China.
The education structure of Pakistan is consisting of 317,323 institutions accommodating 50,292,570 young students and 1,836,584 teachers and instructors. The system is composed of 196,998 public or government sponsored institutions and 120,273 are private institutions.
The public sector is helping 28.68 million students to complete their education while the left over 21.60 million learners are in private sector of education. About 38% of private educational and research institutions are facilitating 43% of students viewing somewhat higher per-institution enrollment percentage in the private sector compared to the public/government sector.
In the last decade, we have observed increased public interest and reliance in the private sector, resulting in a gradual growth in the private sector which has different reasons.
In supplies of teaching staff, 49% of teachers and instructors work in the public institutions, weigh against 51% in the private sector. Apparently the public sector has a deficiency of teachers as compared to private sector. Further (research) is required to determine the causes behind this deficiency.
Currently in Pakistan, there are 32,272 Deeni Madaris (Religious Institutions) working in all Provinces of the state. Out of which 946 (3%) are in public/government sector, whereas 31,326 (97%) are in private sector. The total enrollment in the Religious Institutions is 2.26 million of which 0.06 million (3%) is in the government sector, while, 2.19 million (97%) is in the private sector sponsoring by community or individuals, the total teachers in Deeni Madaris are 74,648. (The Salary of these religious teachers is very low- but this require proper research to find out the facts).
There are total 188 recognized universities in the country providing their services in both public and private sectors of education. Among these universities, 112 (59%) are working under umbrella of public sector, whereas 76 (41%) are working under the Control of private sector. The total enrollment in the universities is 1.463 million. The total teachers in the universities are 58,733 out of which 40,258 (69%) are in public and 18,475 (31%) are in private sector.
At present there are 5.06 million children of primary‐school age are out of school. At the middle 6.51 million, high 4.97 million and higher secondary level 6.29 million, total 22.84 million children are out of school in Pakistan.
So we may say that article 25-A and 37-B, is not obeying by the government of Pakistan.
By: Shah Saud Toru
“The views and opinions expressed in this article are solely of the author. These views and opinions do not necessarily represent those writersclubpk.com and its staff members”
The Author is PhD Scholar in Sociology of Family and member of Writers Club Pakistan management committee. His detailed profile is available in Writers Directory.