Political History of Pakistan – Covering all Historical Political Events
Political History of Pakistan: Laski says, we cannot understand the chock-full benefit of political leadership unless we commence by the admission that all troubles are not central harms and that the results of problems not central; in their prevalence requires decision at the place and by the persons where and by whom the prevalence is most intensely felt.
Political organism is the most influential component and inclusive set of institutions, interest groups such as political parties, trade unions, and lobby groups, the relationships between those institutions and the political norms and rules that govern their functions.
Political system is a perception in which theoretically observe as a way of the government makes a policy and in addition to make them more organized in their administration.
Sociologists consider the following three types of political systems:
In authoritarian or totalitarianism governments, the citizens have no control or representation and it is characterized by absolute or sightless obedience to formal authority, as against individual freedom and related to the probability of unquestioning obedience. The selected leaders handle all the economic, military, mass communication, print, electronic and social media censorship, threatens by the means of terror, safety & security and foreign relations.
The government which is run by a single person, king or queen is a Monarchy government. Constitutional Monarchy and Absolute Monarchy are its types.
Democracy or egalitarianism is a kind of government in which the populace creates and vote for laws directly or indirectly. The idea of democracy holds back from ancient Greece and the philosophical works of earliest academics. However, the existence of democracy does not always mean that citizen’s wishes will be in the same way represented.
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan has been exercised dissimilar forms of Political system like Presidential form of Government, Parliamentary Government, Federation, Authoritarian, dictatorship and One Unit. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan has unfortunate facts of democracy. It has been ruled by the military direct and an indirect form of governments.
Dictators and Military Governments always formed the Local Government systems as per their possess requirements to lengthen and prolong their governments.
The political system of Pakistan move along with many shocks and a few break downs. Whereas looking at the historical underpinnings of political development, one can argue that, political and constitutional development was impaired by one problem or the other.
Unhappily words ‘Pakistan never derived any message from the harsh realities of the past’. Still the political system of the “Naya Pakistan” is remained unstable and resultantly brought structural decay.
Many Political scientists including Sociologist & Anthropologist worry over the tired institutional development in Pakistan.
Political unsteadiness describe that repeated military intervention strongly harmed the political order of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Powerless political parties and strong military-bureaucratic influence play a role to political down in the Quaid-i-Azam’s Pakistan. In Pakistan during the period of political instability in past and even today, military and bureaucracy exercise enormous powers.
Highlights of Political History of Pakistan – The Historical Perspective
• After Freedom from British Government on 15th August 1947, the India Act 1935 were adopted for administering the political business of the state. Besides, the Constituent Assembly was responsible for new constitution but failed to respond positively. So the objective Resolution (1949) was passed by the Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan.
• Choudhry Muhammad Ali after six years of the Objective Resolution became able to present the first Constitution of the newly born Country in 1956 and it was acclaim as one of the greatest political victory of a bureaucrat.
• The first ever martial law in 1958 was imposed by the Pakistani Army General Ayub Khan. Unfortunately, the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan remained in vogue only for couple of year.
• During the Presidential Election (1965), General Ayub Khan sequentially maneuvers Basic Democracy System with the help of (Nawaban, Khanan, and establishment) and defeated The Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah Sister and Madri-Milat Fatima Jinnah. Though the great alien of political opponents questioned the legality of this election.
• Later in 1970, the first ever general election held but great episode (Separation of Bangladesh) occurs and General Yahya was left no choice but to hand over all power to Zulfiqar ali Bhuto.
• In 1973 the Bhutto Government with the consensus of the leader of opposition (Khan Abdul Wali Khan of Awami National Party) makes it possible to set a constitution for the country. This constitution is a great gift of the Bhutto regime to the poor people of the Islamic republic of Pakistan.
• In the Bhutto Government the Fitna-e-Qadyani was demolished after a long debate in the National Assembly and unanimously Qadyani’s were declared Non-Muslims.
• In 1977, Pakistan People Party (Political Organization) won general election for the 2nd time, but the Pakistan National Alliance, a nine-party coalition charged him with rigging the vote. And once again (3rd time after independence) on July 5, 1977 Pakistan was placed under military rule and the 1973 Constitution was suspended. Upon high and mighty power General Zia banned all political parties and uttered his determination to recast the Pakistani state and society into an Islamic mold.
• General Ziaul Haq wanted to create a popular base of support in the hope of legitimizing the role of military in Pakistani politics.
• Following the 1988 election, Muhammad Khan Junejo was nominated as the Prime Minister. Junejo seemed to be a talented part to the Pakistani government. He promoted a smooth transition from the army to civilian authority, which generated hopefulness about the democratic process in Pakistan. The elections of 1988 were based on political party platforms for the first time in fifteen years. Pakistan People Party came forward as the single largest holder of seats.
• In 1990 the President dismissed Benazir Bhutto (the youngest and the first female Muslim Prime Minister in the world) under the eighteen amendment of the Constitution, a decision upheld by the Supreme Court of Pakistan. So once again elections were held two years later. Nawaz Sharif was assigned Prime Minister in 1990 (before this he was the Chief Minister of Punjab) and very soon the bureaucracy and establishment dismissed PML government in 1993 even though he had liberalized investment and restored confidence of investors.
• In 1993 General Election, Muhtarma Benazir Bhutto was placed for the 2nd time as Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. All over again history repeated. President Farooq Leghari dismissed her government. Due to lake of civic education, the public hailed this decision. In 1997, the fifth general election in only twelve years was held. Nawaz Sharif elected for the 2nd time as the Prime Minister of Pakistan. To maintain political stability, his government enact 13 amendments in 1973 Constitution.
• By 1999, the eighteen amendment was made .This legislative act was impressive. The then army chief, General Jehangir Kiramat was worried about Nawaz Sharif’s rising power; openly he demanded that the army be included in the country’s decision-making process. Two days later he resigned putting General Pervez Musharraf in his position and on October 12th, 1999 Gen Musharaf successfully throw out civilian government.
• In October 2002, General Election held under the dictatorship of General Pervez Musharaf (the Chief Executive of the Country). PMLQ becomes ruling party with all the support of the dictator. This was the era of instability, terrorism and authoritarian and talibanization.
• In 2008, General election held and Pakistan People Party won the Election. They formed Coalition Government. Some reforms and development took place in this era. But terrorism was the major issue faced by the then Political Government. The greatest Achievement of this Government was Eighteen Amendment, where the Pakhtun province NWFP named as Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. For the first time in the history of Pakistan, they successfully completed five years tenure.
• In May 2013, General Election held and Nawaz Sharif became Prime Minister for the 3rd time. Although political instability was in peak during his government but the government has completed its five years tenure.
• In May 2018 General election held and Pakistan Tahreek-Insaf, a new emerged party won the General Election. Currently they are trying to run and turn the system to the right direction but so far no or very little progress has been made.
Pakistan needs rigorous efforts to evolve a political system by which institutions become capable to sustain shocks and breakdowns.
Political History of Pakistan By: Shah Saud Toru
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The Author is PhD Scholar in Sociology of Family and member of Writers Club Pakistan management committee. His detailed profile is available in Writers Directory.